Do we know about Vitamin A .. ??
Vitamin A is a fat-soluble retinoid group that includes retinol, retinal, and retinyl esters. It is involved in immune function, vision, reproduction, and cellular communication. Retinol is an important component of rhodopsin, a light-absorbing protein in the retina’s receptors. It also supports the normal differentiation and function of the conjunctival membranes and cornea. Vitamin A supports cell growth and differentiation and plays a crucial role in the normal structure and maintenance of the heart, lungs, kidneys, and other organs.
This is one of the types of vitamin A that people get in their food. performed on it (retinol and its esterified form, retinyl ester), as well as carotenoids, which are a precursor to vitamin A. (Provitamin A). Premade vitamin A can be found in foods that come from animals, like milk, fish, and meat. These foods also have premade vitamin A in them (especially the liver). Beta-carotene is the most important provitamin A carotenoid at the moment. Another provitamin A carotenoids are alpha-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin.
These plant pigments are turned into vitamin A by the body. Both provitamin A and preprocessed vitamin A must be turned into retinal and retinoic acid, the active forms of vitamin A, in order for them to be used for biological activity. Vitamin A isn’t made from all the carotenoids in food, and not all of them turn into vitamin A. As an example, look at lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin. They are carotenoids.
Various forms of retinol are excreted in the intestinal cavities and are absorbed by the mucous cells of the esophagus. Both retinyl esters and provitamin A carotenoids are converted to retinol, which is oxidized to retinol and then retinoic acid. Most of them are stored in the liver in the form of retinyl esters.
With vitamin A deficiency…
Vitamin A deficiency is common in many developing countries. Poverty often results in a reduced ability to eat pre-processed vitamin A-containing foods, such as animal-based food sources and beta-carotene. According to the World Health Organization, 190 million preschoolers and 19.1 million pregnant women worldwide have very low retinol concentrations.
Vitamin A deficiency starts when babies don’t get enough colostrum or breast milk in the first few months. Moreover, chronic diarrhea causes young children to lose too much retinol, which makes them more likely to get diarrhea. However, vitamin A deficiency makes diarrhea more likely. Children and pregnant women who don’t get enough riboflavin often have dry eyes. One of the first signs of xerophthalmia is night blindness, or not being able to see in low light or darkness. When a child doesn’t get enough of this, he or she is more likely to go blind. They have low iron levels, which can lead to anemia. People who don’t get enough vitamin A have low iron levels, which can cause anemia. Even before the onset of xerophthalmia, vitamin A deficiency can make infections more severe and more likely to kill, especially in young people.
Risk groups for vitamin A deficiency
Premature babies are born with insufficient vitamin A deposits in the liver, and retinol levels in their plasma concentrations are often low throughout the first year of life. These babies with vitamin A deficiency are at higher risk of developing eye, chronic lung, and gastrointestinal diseases.
Infants and young children
The amount of vitamin A in breast milk is enough for the first six months of a baby’s life. However, in women who don’t get enough retinol, the volume, and vitamin A content of breast milk fall. On the other hand, it won’t be enough to keep enough vitamin A in breastfed babies. This deficiency is more common in young children after they stop breastfeeding, which can make it more common. Night blindness is the most common and easily seen sign of vitamin A deficiency in babies and children. Bitot’s spots can also be seen in the eye.
Pregnant and lactating women
For pregnant women, more retinol is needed for fetal development and tissue maintenance, but also for the mother’s own metabolism. These other impacts include an increased risk of anemia in pregnant and breastfeeding women, as well as reduced growth and development in infants. According to the World Health Organization, vitamin A deficiency causes xerophthalmia in 9.8 million pregnant women throughout the globe.
People with cystic fibrosis
In many people with cystic fibrosis, pancreatic insufficiency increases the risk of vitamin A deficiency due to difficulty in absorbing fat. Moreover, several studies have found that 15% -40% of patients with cystic fibrosis have a vitamin A deficiency.
Nothing is more than enough
In both cases, not enough vitamin A can be bad for your health and too much of it can be bad for your body. The recommended daily allowance for vitamin A (RDA) is 900 mcg for boys and 700 mcg for girls, which can be easily met by eating a well-balanced meal every day. However, it is important that adults can’t take more than 10,000 IU (3,000 mcg) at a time to avoid poisoning.
Although pre-processed vitamin A can be consumed through animal-based sources such as the liver, poisoning is most often associated with overeating and treatment with certain drugs, such as isotretinoin. Vitamin A stores fat in your body and may reach unhealthy levels over time. Therefore, an overdose of vitamin A can lead to serious side effects and can be fatal if taken in excessive doses.
The most common side effects of chronic vitamin A poisoning are:
- Visual Impairment
- Joint and bone pain
- Damage to the Liver
- Growth retardation
- Itching of the skin
- Hair loss
- Nausea and vomiting
- Dry Skin
- Decreased appetite
In addition, vitamin A poisoning can harm the health of both the mother and the baby and cause birth defects. Vitamin A poisoning can cause liver damage, vision problems, nausea, and even death. Above all symptoms of vitamin A poisoning, Therefore, don’t take an overdose of vitamin A without your doctor’s advice.
Foods To Eat To Get Vitamin A.
Vitamin A and carotenoids are found in both food and supplements. Pre-processed carotenoid sources, on the other hand, are more difficult for your body to absorb. Vitamin A may be found in a wide range of foods, including green vegetables, fruits, cereals, low-fat or non-fat dairy products, and oils. Additionally, it contains fish, meat, eggs, legumes (beans, nuts), and other protein-rich dietary sources.
Foods high in pre-processed vitamin A:
- Egg yolk
- Beef Liver
- Cod liver oil
- Chicken liver
- Cheddar cheese
- liver sausages
- Trout (A freshwater fish)
Foods high in provitamin A carotenoids such as beta-carotene
- Sweet Potato
- Red pepper
- Butternut squash
Your body’s ability to convert carotenoids like beta-carotene into active vitamin A depends on a lot of things, like your genes, your diet, your overall health, and the medicines you take. Carotenoid-rich foods are important for people who follow a plant-based diet. People who aren’t vegetarians should make sure they get enough of these foods.
- Establishing global nutrient requirements (who.int)
- Vitamin A and Carotenoids – Health Professional Fact Sheet (nih.gov)
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