Foodborne diseases continue to be a major global threat to public health, leading to millions of illnesses and thousands of deaths annually. Among several microorganisms causing food contamination are those called “the Big 6” for their capacity to cause such pathology. All six pathogens widely contribute to the frequency of global diarrheal diseases via food consumption. In this article, we provide an overview of these pathogens and the potential hazards associated with them.


Salmonella is a common foodborne pathogen emanating from various sources, such as poultry, eggs, and unpasteurized dairy products. It has several symptoms, including salmonellosis with diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps. In some cases, it causes severe dehydration, leading to hospitalization, especially among the elderly and young children.

Escherichia coli (E. coli)

 E-coli -the big six foodborne pathogens

Some strains of E. coli specifically produce toxins that are life-threatening or even fatal. In this case, contaminated ground beef, raw fruits, and vegetables, as well as unpasteurized milk, are major culprits. Symptoms range from mild diarrhea to serious kidney destruction, especially among kids.


Listeria monocytogenes grows in refrigerated conditions. Often, the sources of Listeria outbreaks are found in contaminated deli meats, soft cheeses, and smoked seafood. Infections by the organism may lead to fever, muscle aches, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Serious illnesses might include meningitis or septicemia representing major threats towards pregnant women as well as their unborn children.


Campylobacter - the big six foodborne pathogens

Campylobacter jejuni is among the most common causes of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. It is frequently observed in undercooked poultry, unpasteurized milk, as well as contaminated water sources. Features that describe infection appear mostly as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fever with severe conditions that might necessitate physician care.


For instance, norovirus is an extremely contagious virus that causes the majority of food poisoning cases related to infected food handlers. It presents with sudden and serious symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, and stomach cramps. Even though it generally resolves on its own, norovirus could cause dehydration, especially in a vulnerable person.

Clostridium perfringens

Clostridium perfringens is a bacterium found commonly in extensively cooked and then inadequately cooled or slowly cooling foods. Symptoms for Clostridium perfringens food poisoning include abdominal cramps and diarrhea that usually resolve within 24 hours. Although not fatal, this type of poison can deny comfort to an affected individual.


Prevention of these Big 6 pathogens causing foodborne illnesses has several facets involving the food producers, handlers, and consumers. Some important strategies are as follows:

Proper Food Handling: Always follow safe food handling practices like regular hand washing, and cleaning utensils and surfaces. The cooked foods must reach recommended temperatures along with quick refrigeration of leftovers.

In sum, the Big 6 foodborne pathogens remain to be a major public health threat. Improvements in food safety regulations and practices have been made; however, these pathogens are still an active hazard for consumers. Knowing their source of contamination and abiding by simple food safety measures can help minimize risks associated with these dangerous microorganisms. Continued research activities and monitoring within the food chain need to be exercised adequately to prevent and control outbreaks related to them as well as make it a safer feeding ground for all our people around the world.


  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2021). Salmonella.
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2021). Escherichia coli (E. coli).
  3. Listeria infection – Symptoms & causes – Mayo Clinic

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